Horatio Gates at Saratoga
DescriptionOil on canvas painting of "Horatio Gates at Saratoga", ca. 1800, by James Peale. Horatio Lloyd Gates (1727-1806) was born in Maldon, England and obtained a commission in the British army in 1745. He served the British in North America during the War of Austrian Succession (1745-1748) and Seven Years (French and Indian) War (1756-1763). Gates left the army with the rank of major in 1769 and began living in Virginia as a planter. He joined the Continental army when the Revolutionary War broke out in 1775 and served until 1783, retiring a major general. During the war, he was credited for the critical American victory during the Battle of Saratoga (1777) in New York. In 1777-1778, Gates played a major role in efforts to discredit and replace General George Washington as commander of the army. Later, he was defeated at the Battle of Camden (1780), which effectively ended his military career. After the war, the former general settled in Virginia as a planter and lived at "Traveller's Rest," and later, "Rose Hill" in New York. When he sold "Traveller's Rest" in 1790, he also freed his slaves upon the recommendation of John Adams. After serving a single term in the New York State Legislature (1800) he died at his estate in 1806 and was buried at Trinity Churchyard, Manhattan, New York.